D. Broad, 1926).

Privacy advocates are concerned about the threat to privacy posed by the increased storage and integration of personally identifiable information; Expert panels have published several policy recommendations to adapt the practice to privacy expectations.139 140 141 The misuse of Big Data in various cases by the media, companies and even the government has allowed the abolition of trust in almost all the fundamental institutions that sustain society.142

Nayef Al-Rodhan argues that a new type of social contract will be needed to protect individual freedoms in a context of Big Data and giant corporations that own vast amounts of information. The use of Big Data should be better monitored and regulated nationally and internationally.143 Barocas and Nissenbaum argue that one way to protect individual users is by reporting the types of information that is collected, with whom it is shared, under what limitations and for what purposes.144

The Big Data ‘V’ model is compelling as it focuses on computational scalability and lacks a loss around the perceptibility and understandability of information. This led to the Cognitive Big Data framework, which characterizes the Big Data application according to: 145

Large data sets have been analyzed by computing machines for more than a century, including US census analytics conducted in 1890 by IBM punch card machines that computed statistics including population means and variations across the continent. In more recent decades, scientific experiments like CERN have produced data on scales similar to today’s commercial “big data.” However, scientific experiments have tended to analyze their data using specialized high-performance computing (supercomputing) clusters and grids, rather than cheap basic computer clouds as in the current commercial wave, implying a difference in culture and the technology.

Big data is a buzzword and a “vague term”, 151 152 but at the same time an “obsession” with entrepreneurs, consultants, scientists and the media. Big data samples like Google Flu Trends did not generate good predictions in recent years, exaggerating flu outbreaks by a factor of two. Similarly, Academy Awards and election predictions based solely on Twitter were more often off target.